North American Black Bear: Colour: Body fur black, brown, blonde, or rarely white. Brown muzzle. White chest patch on some not all, always unique. Eyes brown (blue at birth).
Adult Weight & Length: Males: up to 500 pounds common, depending upon age, season, and food. Females: 90 to 300 pounds common. 50 to 80 inches, nose to tail, depending on sex.
Birth Month: January.
Litter Size: Typically 3 in Ontario. First litters often 1 or 2.
Birth Weight: 1/2 pound.
Weight at 1 Year: 15 pounds to more than 100 pounds, depending on food supply.
Parental Care: 17 months (rarely 29 months), ending in June when mothers become ready to mate again.
Vision: Color vision. Good near vision. Vision appears to equal humans.
Hearing: Smelling ability is extremely good.
Intelligence: One of the most intelligent North American mammals. Long-term memory excellent. Heaviest brain, relative to body length, of any land carnivore.
Sounds: Grunts, loud blowing, and a resonant "voice". Does not threaten by growling.
Swimming Distance: excellent long distance swimmer.
Running Speed: Lean bears may exceed 30 mph. Fat bears in winter readiness tire and overheat quickly.
Daily Activity Period: Typically 1/2 hour before sunrise to 1 to 2 hours after sunset. Prefer to be active during daylight hours, however may become nocturnal to avoid people.
Home Range Diameter:
Yearlings: 1-2 miles.
Adult females: 2-6 miles. Adult males: 8-15 miles.
Preferred Foods: Fruit, nuts, acorns, insects, succulent greens, and meat.
Hibernation: 0 to 7 months depending upon food supply.
Potential Longevity: 21-33 years and more.